IELTS Sand Dunes Diagram Writing Task 1

The diagram below is an IELTS writing task 1 diagram about sand dune formation. This appeared in the IELTS test in December, 2018 (academic paper).

This diagram was particularly challenging because of the similarity in the three diagrams and the lack of words given. People were concerned about paraphrasing and repeating vocabulary. There is a link to download this in pdf below the diagram.

IELTS Diagram: Sand Dune Formation 2018

The diagram has not been published by IELTS, it was recreated by an IELTS candidate and also confirmed by another. This means it might vary from the actual diagram in the test but the essentials will be the same and it will still provide much needed practice with such diagrams.

Sand Dune Diagram Model Answer

The diagrams illustrate the formation of a sand dune from sand particles. Overall, the three stages of formation show that sand particles are driven by the wind over dry ground to gather on wet ground where they collect and create sand dunes.

The first diagram shows how sand particles are blown by the wind over the dry sandy ground and two areas of wet ground. This is then followed by the second diagram in which it can be seen that as particles of sand continue to be carried by the wind along the ground, some of the particles start to adhere to the first patch of wet ground in separate piles.

The sand particles which have been transported by the wind, as illustrated in the final diagram, eventually gather en masse over the area of wet ground, piling one on top of the other until they form a sand dune. The accumulation of so many sand particles is so large that the dunes, once formed, can deflect the wind, forcing it up one side of the dune and down the other. As this happens, particles of sand start gathering and piling up in the next area of wet ground.


  1. Your overview must be clear and contain all key features. It is the most important statement in your whole task.
  2. The overview contains key features and summarises the whole diagram into one statement. Take the keywords and create on long statement which explains the diagram.
  3. The overview can be put together with the introduction in one paragraph, but it still forms a statement on its own. Do not split your overview. You cannot have an overview and another general statement in a different part of the report. You need to collect all summarising statements together and write them as one overview.
  4. If you only state that there are three stages, this would be considered a limited overview which is a features of band 6 Task Achievement. You need to add more than just a number of stages.
  5. You only paraphrase where possible. Some words cannot be paraphrased, such as sand, dune, wind etc. Words such as “blown by the wind” = “transported by the wind” & “carried by the wind”. Choose which words you will and won’t paraphrase.
  6. You should be using a mixture of active and passive voice to describe a diagram or process.
  7. Even though there are three diagrams, does not mean you need three body paragraphs. Be flexible.
  8. The word count of this writing is 199. You do not need to write that much, but do make sure you write over 150 words.
  9. Use linking and sequencing words: overall, followed by, as illustrated, eventually, as this happens

I hope you found it useful to see this diagram, model answer and tips 🙂

All the best


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  1. I found it very difficult…

  2. Marcus Dawson says

    I did this question type that came up on December 1st 2018. I split my work into three body paragraphs for each diagram and an overview paragraph. With this approach I got a 7.5 in the writing. This example here is quite similar to the actual question on the day. This type of question, in my opinion, corresponds to a figure that can be seen in a scientific textbook. My tip would be to read figure legends that can be found along with diagrams for good examples on how to summarise data.

  3. Mahbubul Islam says

    Thank you very much Liz for your kind support and feedback for us. I have been greatly benefited from your lectures, videos and comments. Many thanks again for your kindness and boundless generosity.

  4. Thanks a lot Liz.
    I’m a new follower of your web page & preparing for Academic IELTS exam to get band score 7. Honestly I think your study materials help me very much.

  5. GingerlOve says

    Hi Liz!

    I was so worried and even cried because of the comments i’ve seen here (for most of them were stating the elements/factors etc. ) right after you posted the task but i’m relieved now that i saw your sample, my answer has the same thought especially the overview. However i used the word “picture” instead of repeating the word diagram, i actually panicked at first then tried to remember you inorder to calm myself (yeah i’m weird)….

    By the way, there were more wind in diagram 1 then lessened at the last diagram plus there were sand particle movements shown as broken line (- – – -),

    I hope i did really great as you☺️ 🤞🤞🤞

    Thank you Liz!

    🤗To God be the Glory🤗

    • I’m glad you can relax now 🙂 I’ll keep my fingers crossed for your results 🙂 It’s a shame that IELTS don’t release the questions because I would love to have seen the original of this diagram.

    • Rebecca Nakawungu says

      Hello Liz
      Thank you so much for the love and care upon us, your lessons picked me from very far away actually every thing concerning IELTS looked strange but now i feel i can seat for the test.
      I booked 13/12/2018 please keep me in your prayers.
      Kind regards


    I appeared in this particular exam and ti am sorry ti say but this diagram is not exactly the same as we gott in the exam. Infact in the actual diagram there were a lot more arrows directed on the dry ground in the first figure showing that stronger winds are needed to carry particles from the ground and once a sand dune is formed it serves as a base for subsequent dunes. In the 3rd diagram there were much fewer arrows directed at the ground nd morw at the already formwd dune carrying more particles from already formed dune rather than the dry ground. And this process does not require so strong wind to carry particles from an already formed duned to a new site.

    • I have stated both above the diagram and in the diagram that this is not the original. It is a reproduction by an IELTS candidate and it will be different from the original. IELTS do not release the questions so this is the nearest to the original that I can get.
      Did you therefore find this lesson useless and a waste of time? Or did you learn any useful tips?

      • HAMMAD AKHTAR says

        Hi Liz. I did learn a lot from your website actually. Actually whole of my preparation was based on your material and the videos presented by you. I am thankful for that. You are the best. What i meant actually by writing that comment was just to update the info about that particular task from what i remember so it might be helpful for other candidates and your views on how the answer could be improved when the diagram changes with more arrows focussing in the first one and a lot fewer in the last one.

        • It’s impossible for me to reproduce it from only description. Someone would have to draw it for me so I can reproduce it. IELTS candidates do their best but it will never be accurate as it’s just based on memory. It’s unlikely this particular diagram will be used again so this lesson is just to practice approach, content of the report and see some tips. Glad you find my site useful. Good luck with your results 🙂

          • HAMMAD AKHTAR says

            Thank you so much. I was quite apprehensive after the exam especially about this task. But your answer to this task helped me a lot with that. You are doing an amazing job. Thanks Liz

  7. The three diagrams illustrate the process of sand dunes formation.

    Overall the formation is composed of four elements (sand particles, wind direction, wet ground, dry ground) in three different pictures.

    Firstly, it all started with the wind going in a right-sided diagonal directions towards the dry grounds in general, the small and big half moon shaped wet grounds and the mixedly colored sand particles in a single pile.

    Secondly, after which, some of the sand particles added up and three of those formed a triangular formation on top of the larger wet ground, while the wind still blows in the same directions.

    Third and final step of the formation, four to five layers of sand dunes formed on the wider wet ground creating an additional upward direction of the wind situated before the stacked particles. Also the smaller wet ground at the end started to make sand dune with one pyramid like particles.

  8. Parth Desai says

    These three drafts depict that how sand dunes are formed.At first glance, it is clear that number of sand particles are united on the wet ground.
    In the first diagram, sand particles have fallen on the wet ground as well as dry ground in same direction of wind. In the second draft which is illustrated the more number of sand particles are collected on the wet area compare to dry area.wind direction is same as first diagram.In the final delineation which is indicated that huge number of sand particles have fallen on wet area compare to second diagram which is illustrated the sand dunes and wind direction is different compared to last two diagram it is bottom to up.
    In summary,the process of sand dunes is clearly observed that huge number of sand particles are united on wet ground and made sand dunes

  9. Khimly Magtuba says

    The three diagrams illustrates the process on how sand dunes are formed, which consist of sand particles, wind direction, wet and dry ground.
    Overall, as can be seen the wind direction hit the ground. However, in the last stage, the direction of the wind makes difference due to sand particles that are filled up in the wet ground.

    In the first stage, it represents that wind direction that goes down on the wet and dry ground, which sand particles scattered all over the place.

    Following this stage, the wind has the same direction, but the sand particles already piled up.

    Finally, it can be noticeably seen that the wind direction is different, because of the sand particles that compiled in the middle of the wet ground, which goes in upward and downward motion until it touched the ground to form a sand dunes.

  10. The process diagram below illustrates the different stages in the formation of sand dunes. Overall, sand dunes are formed from sand particles moved in various directions of wind flow on the ground.
    First of all, various sand particles which could be wet or dry,are moved in the direction of wind flow on the wet or dry grounds. The particles on the wet floor become wet while those on the dry floor remain dry. Thereafter, these particles are clogged together forming various ridges and heaps of sand dunes on the ground.
    Secondly, some of these pieces of sand, when moved by wind were joined together to form bigger sanddunes.These sand dunes contained about three to four particles of sand,which were later dislodged by the wind.
    Lastly, When the wind flow is haphazard there is a formation of large vertical ridges of sand dunes containing numerous sand particles on-the-go wet ground. These are dislodged into smaller sand dunes on the dry grounds.

  11. Edith Appiah says

    The diagram below illustrates the formation of sand dunes.

    Overall, this is a natural, cyclical process that involves three stages. It involves the use of dry sand particles, wet surface and and dry surface.

    To begin, in stage one, tiny particles of sand on the ground are spread all over the environment, some on dry land and others on wet surface. When the wind blows, its transport these smaller particles from its original place from one place to the other in the direction of the wind. In stage two, these dry sand particles are however stopped during the process of transportation when it comes into contact with wet land. This subsequently makes the particles to get stacked and also becoming wet as well. As the wind keeps blowing, more of the sand particles are added to the stacked wet particles till its heaps up to the top where these particles are no longer wet. In the final stage, as the wind blows in the usual direction against the heap of sand dune, its direction is diverted upwards against the slope of the sand and then further down the slope of the sand dune. As the wind blows over the sand dunes, dry sandy particles are carried to other places in the environment until it comes into contact with another wet ground, then the process begins again.

  12. The diagram illustrates the formation of sand dunes. Overall, it can be seen that the process involves four elements; sand particles, wind, wet ground and dry ground.
    Firstly, the wind blows to the direction of the sand particle where they are either on a wet ground or dry ground making it to form clusters of sand dunes, these in turn accumulates to form large clumps of it.
    However, when they are in hip stage, this cause the direction of the wind to be diverted to another sand particles of wet and dry sand and the whole process continues until many sand dunes are formed.

  13. Darshana Pujar says

    The diagram illustrates the formation of sand dunes, which are aggregation of sand particles.

    Overall, the process involves four components, which are sand particles, wind direction, wet ground and dry ground.
    Sand dunes are created on the wet surface, when individual sand particles cling together to form a huge mountain.

    In the first stage, wind blowing in one direction cause the sand particles to scatter onto the ground, which is both wet and dry in nature. These sand particles, freely move on the dry ground, whereas stick on to the wet surface that avoids their further movement.

    Following this stage, as the wind continues to flow, more particles blown by the wind adhere to one another on the wet surface, leading to small groups of sand particles. Finally, with further motion of the wind, these groups bond together, resulting in formation of a heap of particles, which is called as a sand dune. Once a sand dune a created, wind blowing in this particular direction ,hits it, thereby slowing down and causing less particles to accumulate on the next wet surface, creating a smaller sand dune.

  14. Ma says,
    Diagrams illustrate the formation of sand dunes. This process made through the wind force continuously moving toward one direction. The area shown on the diagram has two wet lands in which one is big and other one is small located above the dry ground.

    The wind force moves sand particles toward the wet ground where sand particles stick together and started to form sand dune. The wind force of left side of diagram enough to mobilize related sand particles accumulating above the big wet ground compare with area of the small wet ground.

    In the first two diagrams shows that the wind force is not big enough to accumulate the sand particles above the small wet ground whereas it is enough to form sand dune on the big one. On the third Diagram, sand dune lying on big wet ground causes to divert particular amount of wind force to the right side . This increased wind force started to build another sand dune on the small wet ground.

  15. Hi mam!!!thank you very much for sharing us yours valuable knowledge..I m practicing by following your’s working a lot to answer it.. about above diagram reply z ……The below diagrams illustrates about the sand dunes formation.
    Overall,it can be seen that sand dunes are formed by three stages with the help of sand particles ,wind direction,dry and wet land.
    In the first diagram the molecules of sand are separated on the dry ground as the wind blows.
    However,in the later diagrams as the wind shine faster near to the sand particles ,specially on the muddy areas the molecules coincide in centre leaving less space in between them.
    Lastly as the wind blows in upward and downward direction the particles united becoming huge as a dude.
    To conclude sand dunes formation requires wet area and winds.

  16. Hi Liz,
    Does the ielts test task 1 comes in pattern i.e diagram for one one test then the following test line graph then the following test table etc..

    • On any one test day, there will be a variety of types used. You should not attempt to predict. You must learn all types and be 100% prepared if you are serious about getting a good result.

  17. The diagrams illustrates the formation of sand dunes. There are tree stages involve in this process. Overall, all the three steps indicate the wind blowing in one direction during the sand dune formation process. There is dry land, with two area of wet ground.
    As illustrated in the first stage, sand particles are being blown from the dry land to the wet ground. On the send stage the wind continues to blow, and the sand particles continue to accummutate on the first patch of the wet land.
    As the wind continue to blow in step three, the sand particles are hopped on the first patch, this leads to a change in direction of the wind which results in sand particles being blown to the second patch of the wet land and the dry ground between the two wet grounds. The sand dunes continue to grow in size as the stages progress.

  18. The diagram illustrates the natural process of the formation of sand dunes. This process consists of three stages and four components, which includes sand particles, wind, wet and dry ground.

    Firstly, particles of sand are continuously directed by the wind onto both dry and wet surfaces. The sand particles tend to adhere to the wet ground, consequently preventing the further movement of sand particles

    Following the continuous effect of the wind, the sand particles begin to accumulate on the wet surface to form a small aggregation of sand.

    Finally, the further accumulation of sand particles on the wet ground forms a hip of sand known as a sand dune. The excess particles from the sand dune is then blown by the wind onto dry and wet ground surfaces to continue the cycle of the formation of more sand dunes.

  19. Can anyone send me a link about the model answer for this one?

    • Did you read the page carefully? It is stated I will post it tomorrow. Please read all pages carefully if you wish to benefit from these free lessons.

  20. The diagram show the formation of sand dunes and the factor needed in order for this to occur, these are: wind, sand particles and a proportion of the ground to be wet and another to be dry.
    To begin with it is needed a climate factor, wind. The wind should have a specific direction, it has to be inclined diagonally into the soil and to have the sufficient strength to move the sand particles. But it is also required that the wind maintains the same orientation for a period of time, because, if this does not occur the sand will not be grouped. So the wind starts moving the particles, but, in order to be contained in a certain area, the soil needs to be wet. The increase in the sand humidity higher the cohesion between the particles and they will start to agglomerate forming a sand structure. Finally, if the soil is not dry in some areas the particles will not move and the particles aggrupation will never occur.

  21. The formation of sand dunes is represented diagrammatically in three steps. The sand grains on the dry ground are carried away easily by the wind. These grains which are in more or less similar sizes, when fall on the wet ground get attached with the ground and with each other as well in the direction of the wind.
    This process is carried out till the wind blows in the same direction. Once the sand dune is formed, as they redirect the wind and similar process will take place and another sand dune will be formed little away from the first one.

  22. In the give diagram, the formation of the sand dunes has been showing. The sand dunes build in reaction of the wind push to sand particles. In diagram, there are two type of ground with witness and without wetness. In part first, the wind push the sand particles which stick to wet land more likely. In part two, we have observed that the diameter of wet land is also important in dune building process. A wet patch of land with larger diameter grow to dune more rapidly compare to smaller one. In part third, eventually the dunes at larger wet patch become much high and strong to turn the wind direction. Finally, we infer that the larger patch of wet land have large coverage and high slope.

  23. Aya AlGhazali says

    Hello Liz, I have watch your tutorials thank you so much they are really helpful. This is my first trial on solving task 1 I hope that I did well I just found a difficulty in finding propre vocabulary to use for this question. Thank you for your help!!


    This diagram illustrates the process of which sand dunes are being formed in three parts.

    Overall, it is noticed that wind direction plays a main role in collecting the sand particles, as well as, the ground type as mentioned in the diagram ( wet ground or dry ground).

    Initially, the air moves the sand particles then gather them side by side in one direction.They become more adherent to each other when they move from the dry ground to the wet ground.

    The next stage when the particles get mixed and increased in number the wind is still blowing in the same direction to collect more sand.

    Finally, the number of sand particles massively increase and change the way the wind moves which creates more power to collect more sand particles.

  24. According to the given diagram, The formation of the sand dunes has been showing. The sand dunes build in reaction of the wind push to the sand particles. In diagram, there are two types of ground with wetness and without wetness has been showing. In part first, the wind start to push sand particles which stick to wet and dry ground equally likely. In part two, we observed that in dune building process the diameter of wet land is also important. A wet ground with large diameter growing to a large dune more rapidly comparatively to small wet ground. In part third, finally the dunes is much high and strong eventually the dune push the air pressure to redirect it. We infer that as the diameter of wet land extended the sand dunes build with large coverage and high slope. The slope of dunes become high gradually within diameter of wet land.

  25. Maria Makurat says

    Hey! No idea if this is correct but I would write something along the lines of this:

    The three diagrams illustrate the process of how sand dunes are formed. Overall, four key aspects play a role in the formation of sand dunes, which are: wind direction, wet ground, dry ground and sand particles. The process of sand dune formation can be depicted and explained in three steps.

    Firstly, wind needs to be present in order to start the formation of sand dunes. Also, several parts of the dry ground need to have wet parts on which sand particles can stick.

    Secondly, the wind blows into one direction and moves the sand particles along in the same direction. Due to the wet parts in the ground, sand particles start accumulating on these wet spots and start to form already a little hill.

    Thirdly, as the wind blows more sand particles into one direction, more sand starts building up on the little hills and eventually a sand dune is formed. As the hill grows, the wind has to go over the dune and is slowed down. This means that a second sand dune is formed smaller after the big sand hill.
    (not sure if the last part is relevant since the diagram is a bit vague on this part)
    182 words

  26. Thanks lot Liz.
    i do love great minded for great free lessons.
    I am preparing for IELTs exam for Feb to get 6.5 for my uni.

  27. Eenas abdullah says

    The given diagram represents the steps by which sand dunes are formed, overall, it is clearly seen that it is a naturally occurring process.
    According to the diagram, the first step, winds blow and uptakes the sand particles and carries them above the ground, secondly, the ground has dry and wet areas, the sand particles aggregates on the wet ones, as the winds keep on blowing more and more sand is accumulating forming the dunes, finally when the dunes achieved a certain volume it acts as a wind breaker changing its direction from donwards to upwards.
    Finally, you can see that sand dunes essentially require sand, wind, and wet ground.

  28. Hello dear
    I have taken my exam on 1st December,2018.The first writing task was about a new proposed plan of a city…………….but, you have uploaded
    Sand dune formation diagram…….so it means ielts exam is different in every country…………
    Kindly reply

  29. Aisyah asri says

    The diagram illustrates how sand dunes are being created from multiples little sand particles. The whole process generally requires wind movement to mobilize the sand particles.

    First, the sand particles will travel in the direction of the wind. The particles can either travel on its own or attached to the others and move as a group. As they travel, the particles will pass through several wet grounds on their way which may be fomed due to the retention of rainwater.

    Passing on the wet surface, some particles may adhere to the surface and stop following the wind direction, although there may be some that can go across the wet grounds. As the particles adhere, more particles are being blocked and stopped at the wet ground.

    Finally, the sand particles attach to each other, sticking on top of one another building a heap of sand particles. The heap grows in size and eventually become a properly formed sand dune. At some point, the sand dune will be too high for the wind to penetrate through and eventually diverts the wind direction over the huge sand dune.

    Overall, the formation of sand dunes involve a long period and depends on many components like sand particles, wind and wet grounds.

  30. Mokesioluwa Fanoro says

    Sand dunes are formed through the accumulation of sand particles. Sand particles as depicted in Figure 1,2 and 3 from different directions are moved from an area of dry soil to a moisten soil. The key agent in the movement is wind. Just as the direction of wind cannot be controlled, such accumulation can be achieved in any places especially if the soil is moistened. In Figure 1, the soil particles are moved from a dry ground to a wet ground. Even though all the soil particles are moved to the wet ground, all the soil particles are not used. Wet soil particles are essential for binding of all the soil particles. The wet soil particles stick to the wet ground.
    Figure 2 shows another stage of sand dune buildup. The wet soil particles are moved on top of the dry soil. With subsequent blowing of the wind, more dry and wet soil particles interact and accumulate forming sand dunes in the process.

  31. The given diagrams illustrate the formation of sand dunes.

    It is obvious that some certain factors are essential for the dunes to be formed. These factors are wind, sand particles which make up the dunes and wetness in the ground.

    The wind which has a power directed towards the ground drives the sand particles on the dry ground until they get stuck in a wet part of it. Obviously, the randomly gathered sand particles gradually build up a dune and do not move thanks to the higher bond between them and the wet part of the ground.

    The dunes do not always seem to be steady and the more they go up the more they are prone to the wind. The wind can easily change its direction having hit the bottom of the dune and go towards the top of it. As a result, it swipes away the sand particles on the top and they start running on the dry ground again until they meet a wet part of ground and the same dune formation process starts over.

  32. The diagram below given depicts the stages of forming sand dunes.
    Scattered sand particles move with the direction of the wind. Usually from the dry surface to the wet areas.
    From the given picture, it’s obvious that the granules gathered together in the wet areas. which were blown by strong wind currents and formed small bumps which eventually turn out to be dues as the particles gathered in large number.
    Therefore the given pictures reveal the process of forming sand dunes in the desert

  33. The three given diagrams illustrate the formation of sand dunes using four key elements: sand particles, wind direction, wet ground and dry ground.

    A quick glance at the images show that the direction of the wind is essential in moving sand particles forward. Also sand dunes are mainly formed on wet grounds.

    To look at the diagrams in more detail, sand particles move to the direction of the wind on dry grounds, but they stop moving when reaching the wet ground. As the process continues and wind keeps blowing in one direction, the dunes are formed. When wind reaches the dune, it changes its direction and and as a result the sand particles get pushed up the dune and stay on top of each other. Sand dunes are normally loose in structure; therefore, some sand particles move again with stronger wind and they get trapped on the next wet ground to form another dune.

  34. The diagram gives information about the formation of sand dunes in three steps.
    In the first diagram while the wind goes in the south east direction , the particles are distributed quite evenly in the ground.
    The second part however shows a slight change. There is an increase of the number of particles going to the central part of the ground where is located a wet floor, even if the wind direction has not changed at all.
    Finally, in the third step, the dune is formed due to the accumulation of sand particles in the wet ground. Besides the wind cross the dune going up to the north east and down to the south again after it so modelling its shape.
    Overall it is clear that the sand dunes are realised by the moviment of the wind and the particles which are attracted to the the wet point of the floor.

  35. Amare Mezgebu says

    The diagram describes the process of formation of sand dunes. It illustrates the stages, from sand particle collection to building of large sand dump.

    Overall, sand dunes are formed by a collection of sand particles by the agent of wind. Sand particles in dry ground moved in to wet ground to form large sand band and then a series of bands formed.

    Sand particles are moved from the dry portion of the ground by wind action. when this particles reached the wet section of the earth, the get attached to the ground and then form simple sand dun. Through time, this small sand collection got large as other sand particles are also added by wind action.

    The large sand collection blocked the wind and then leads to change in direction to upward to the top of sand dune, this allows small sand particles to be added on the top of the dune. At the same time sand particles on the top of the large sand dune are also moved to down to surface, due to wind force and they formed another sand collection. through a series of sand dunes can be formed.

  36. Nikhitha Sasikumar says

    The given diagram illustrates the steps throught which a sand dune is formd.As per the diagram the sand dune formation includes three main steps .

    It can be seen from the diagram that in the first step the sand particles are moved in according to the wind direction, sand particles move in the dry ground by the force of wind.In the second step,some of sand particles are diposited on the wet ground by the wind where they accumalate together by sticking together.These sand particles form a small cluster of sand particles and they no longer move with the wind as they are in the wet ground.In the final stage ,more and more sand particles travel to this small sand dune because of the force of wind .After some time, the tiny depostion transform into a big sand dune .After the fomation of a dune,the winds direction follows the shape of sand dune ,allowing further sand dune formation on the wet grounds.
    Overall,sand dune formation is a simple natural phenomenon which forms with the help of sand particles and wind.

  37. The diagrams illustrate the formation of sand dunes as a consequence of the force of wind on sand particles. The process happens in three major stages involving sand particles, wind and ground which has dry and wet portions.
    At the initial stage of the process, the wind blows at approximately 45 degrees against sand particles on the ground which in turn roll and come to contact with each other. Some sand particles stick to the wet ground at this stage. In the second stage, more particles get stuck on the wet ground and with the wind continuing to blow, a small mount of sand starts to form.
    The final stage is characterised by a growing heap of sand which subsequently deflect wind upwards at an angle. This process results in the conical shape of the sand dune. As wind continues to blow, wet ground accumulates sand and another dune will start to form next to the first one.

  38. This is a pictorial representation of sand dune formation. Here 3 diagrams are represented which shows the various levels of sand dune formation. The bubbles shows the sand particles , arrows show the wind direction half circle represents the wet ground and the square represents the dry ground. The wind is flowing in only one direction in the first and second figures. Figure 1 shows the initial state of the dune formation. Here 2 wet grounds are shown, one is wider than the other. Initially the sand particle moves along the wind direction and they stuck on the wet ground. More particle will enter in to the wider wet place than the other. In figure 2 we can note that as the wind blows more sand particles comes together and start to build a dune. Let us name the wider wet place as A and other one as B. As more particles comes to A than B, the dune size is also increasing in A. We can note that as the dunes get bigger the wind flow direction also changes. Figure 3 shows the final sand dunes. We can see that A formed big sand dunes and B formed a smaller sand dune. The wind direction also changed in figure 3 after the dune formation. Before it was blowing from top to bottom. After dune formation, the wind flows up in the sand dunes. From the figures it is also clear that the larger dry area also helps to create a bigger dune. There are more dry area before A compared to B. So the wind can take more sand particles to form the dunes. So this 3 figures gives a clear idea about the sand dune formation and the factors affecting it.

  39. Urmila Nepali says

    The diagram give information about the process of formation of sand dunes in the desert or in the bank of the river.
    Overall, it is evident that the sand of beach is blown by the force of air on the wet land allowing the sand to pile up and again the wind blows the sand.
    In the first diagram, the force of air propels the sand towards the wet land, where it imerses into the water and the density of sand also increases. After that the air again succeds to blow the dry sand to dry area leaving the wet one in the latter place.
    In the second diagram, the former process continues. Now the air compels the sand on dry land, but not the whole amount of sand becomes wet. As the force of air becomes stronger the dry sand automatically goes away.
    In the last, the sand is collected on the wet surface though partially dipped on the water and pilles up sand succeded to alter the direction of wind to some extent. Even though, it removed the little amount of sand on the wet land.

  40. Hi,Miss can yo post the answer asap.because my exam is on 8 th of December 2018

  41. Paraskevi Xanthopoulou says

    The illustration is not completely correct. First of all the wind arrows where less in the third picture and in all three images the moves of the sand particles are missing. They were depicted with “ – – – ->”

    • There is a notice on the diagram which explains it is not the same as the original. This is just a similar version based on IELTS candidates memories and ability to produce the diagram. Even though it differs from the original, it still provides useful practice.

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