IELTS Diagram: Model Answer Band Score 9

Below is an IELTS diagram model answer which is estimated at band score 9. It is possible to have a diagram in your IELTS writing task 1 academic paper. A diagram is also known as a process. This is from IELTS Cambridge Book 8, Test 3.

The diagram below shows the stages and equipment used in the cement-making process, and how cement is used to produce concrete for building purposes.

cement and concrete

Diagram Model Answer

The diagrams illustrate the way in which cement is made and how it is then used in the process of making concrete. Overall, limestone and clay pass through four stages before being bagged ready for use as cement which then accounts for 15% of the four materials used to produce concrete. While the process of making cement uses a number of tools, the production of concrete requires only a concrete mixer.

In the first stage of making cement, limestone and clay are crushed together to form a powder. This powder is then combined in a mixer before passing into a rotating heater which has constant heat applied at one end of the tube. The resulting mixture is ground in order to produce cement. The final product is afterwards put into bags ready to be used.

Regarding the second diagram, concrete consists of mainly gravel, which is small stones, and this makes up 50% of the ingredients. The other materials used are sand (25%), cement (15%) and water (10%). These are all poured into a concrete mixer which continually rotates to combine the materials and ultimately produces concrete.

Comments: This diagram gives a concise introduction. The overview contains key features of both diagrams and also highlights the connection between them. The body paragraphs are organised well and linking devices are used flexibly and accurately. Each body paragraphs explained the steps of each process in a logical order. Complex sentences are accurate and there is also passive voice used. Collocations are well used.


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  1. Hello Liz,
    Could you tell me what are the chances of getting a diagram/process in writing section?
    I liked and understood the example that you gave but rest of the websites, I came up with way too complicated diagrams and no knowledge of how exactly they work. Additionally in model answers they will often used words from their own knowledge that leaves followers like me clueless who don’t have sufficient knowledge of the particular process being discussed. Its nerve-wracking to see such examples. Could you guide?

    Thank you!

    • Most IELTS diagrams will contain words for you to use. You should not paraphrase the words that are labelled in the diagram – instead your task is to use them appropriately. It doesn’t matter if you don’t understand the meaning of a word, as long as you can recognise it is a verb and use it as such. Diagrams are not the most common task – tables, bar charts and line graphs are more common. But diagrams do come in the test and if you don’t prepare for them, you could face serious difficulties. This is the same with maps and building plans. On the whole, IELTS writing isn’t difficult if you know how. It’s a logical test. Try to avoid teachers who over complicate things.

  2. Hello Liz,
    A general question:
    I, sometimes, get nervous and forget to mention the important part of each paragraph and when I find out about it’s too late to include them in the lines and this is how I end up drawing one of this V shapes and write the things I wanted included. Is this a bad move and will I lose point because the examiner won’t read them?

    • I don’t fully understand what you mean. The examiner will take into consideration anything written on the answer sheet. But if things are written in bullet point style without full cohesive sentences, your score will be lowered. You should plan all writing fully before you write even one word.

  3. HI liz mam i want to ask you a question
    In the diagram you have not written separate paragraph of overview why

  4. Ashish Panchasara says:

    hi liz
    you did great job for IELTS students.

    Thank you
    Ashish Panchasara

  5. Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh says:

    Dear Liz,
    Thanks a lot for nice website that you have and it is very useful.

    Could you please tell me in writing we have write can not or can’t?


  6. Hi Liz,

    Firstly, thank you for your tips and advice! You are a really awesome teacher!

    I have a question for a description of a process. One website (endorsed by IDP Education) states that we are allowed to add details to the process based on our personal knowledge, is this true? A sample question on how fruits are processed was given, and it was recommended (not in the question itself but in the ‘lesson’ that followed) we add our own details.

    Your advice is very much appreciated.

    • I don’t know which website it is but you must not add any information that isn’t on the diagram. Your task is to report the diagram as shown, not to give opinions. Can you let me know which website it is so I can check it? Thanks

      • Yeah, I had my doubts but I thought I should clarify nonetheless. I have sent a request for clarification through the website but have yet to receive a reply.

        Unfortunately, I don’t think you can access the page as it is by subscription. I got a free subscription for the writing module when I registered for the test here in Perth, Australia. It is by IELTS Master at (the page had an endorsement by IDP Education, which I believe jointly ‘owns’ IELTS, with British Council and Cambridge English Language Asessment). Thus my panic, if you know what I mean.

        • *has an endorsement 😛 “Proudly supported by IDP…”

        • I am surprised. Always follow the instructions “Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.” which do not ask you to share your experience or knowledge in writing task 1. Yes, IDP is one of the owners of IELTS.

          • Thank you, Liz, for your prompt comments; I feel so reassured, and am eternally grateful. You are a gem of a teacher! Lots of love from downunder

      • mam…it was my paper on 24of june….my task 2 really went well..but in task 1 it was a diagram about the fish smokery in which we had to explain the structure and way of using of home smokery at home…i used one time has to and one time muust, in the time of explaining the structure… it wrong😪

        • Thanks for sharing 🙂 The grammar tenses and forms that you use relate to the type of task 1 you get. As long as the grammar is appropriate to use in that context, it is fine.

  7. Pls can I write “energy is measured in quadrillion units (QU)” then use QU through task 1 instead of quadrillion unit which is rather long

  8. Hi
    if the examiner asked me another question in speaking part 2 after i finished talking , can this affect my band score and why?

  9. Arsh Singh says:

    Is it important to write number of steps in the process diagram.. ?

  10. Hello.

    I realised that you combine the introduction paragraph and the overall paragraph, is it okay to do this ?

    I watched your video in Task 1 bar chart, in that video, you separated them. So, does it mean it’s allowed to combine or to separate them without losing scores ?


    • Diagrams often have very short introductions and in those cases I put the two together. But make sure you use “Overall” to start your overview statement so that the examiner can find it easily.

  11. Hi Liz. Do we need the word “overall” to describe the process or not?

  12. Hello Ms. Liz
    Do we need to have almost 5 letters space at the beginning of each paragraph?
    here is an example:
    The diagram illustrate the way in which cement is made ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… etc
    In the first stage of making cement ……. etc

  13. Hi Liz,
    Dont you need to compare two processes in body paragraphs?

  14. Good day Liz!

    I would like to verify if an overvkew is needed for a process chart? Thanks and God bless.

  15. I write overview after introduction in task 1 but i begin my sentence with word overall in last paragraph. will it decrease my overall score ?

    • If you have confused the examiner with indicating two overviews – for example, having an overview after the introduction but also using the word “overall” at the end of your report – your score will be reduced for Task Achievement, which is 25% of your marks.

      • overall score will be reduced by 25% or in Task Achievement only ? I’ll be glad if you make me clear about it 🙂

      • It might also affect your score for Coherence and Cohesion as you have separated the overview into two paragraphs instead of collecting it into one paragraph.

  16. My introduction for this diagram. “This diagram illustrates the different phases and tools that are required in the procedure for manufacturing cement and then how this is mixed with other materials to produce a mixture used for constructing means/aims.”

  17. Hi Liz,
    I really like your website! I’ve been using it a lot! Thank you so much for the help. I think this is the best tips I have taken from the Internet. I’m practicing for the IELTS but I never finish on time this first task. Could you tell me what is the best strategy to manage time? If I dont finish the writing, will I get a low score?
    Kelly Yamamoto

  18. hy …. mam
    i just want to ask that is conclusion is necessary in map and picture graph..

  19. Cherbt Necaerde says:

    Dear Liz,

    First of all, thank you so much for creating this website.
    It is so helpful!

    Do you mind taking a look at my version of this exercise?
    Thank you in advance 🙂
    The present diagram depicts the various consecutive stages required to make cement, as well as it illustrates how to create concrete out of it.

    To begin with, to produce cement limestone and clay are both crushed in order to receive a powder, that consists out of these two sources. After that, the powder passes through a mixer and following this, it is heated while being rotated. In the next stage, our intermediate product is ground, so we eventually get cement. After all of this, the cement is packed in small bags, so it’s ready to be dispatched to the markets.

    In terms of creating concrete, one has to obtain multiple resources to pour into a huge blender, called a concrete mixer. It is quite obvious that the cement will be needed, but it will only contribute for a small 15%. Apart from this, it is apparent from the image shown that we also need some water, which will make up one-tenth of the total amount of concrete. Furthermore, it is also revealed that sand and so-called gravel, a type of stones, are crucial. They contribute respectively for a quarter and half of the total mixture.

  20. Hey i just love ur videos..Kindly tell me whether we have to write conclusion in task 1??

  21. shajahan masum says:

    hi liz,
    please give some synonyms for the word Fluctuation which I use it for more ups and downs in list or chart..

    • You can use fluctuation or fluctuate. There is no synonym which is better. Just alternative verb and noun. Also you should not be highlighting more than two fluctuations anyway.

  22. hi mam
    could you plz help me with a doubt.if i write THE DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATES..instead of illustate… is it wrong..

  23. could u please add model answer for comparison diagrams…

  24. Hi Liz Madame,
    I have just finished my IELTS exam at the British Council in Oman yesterday. in writing Task.1 I got two diagrams, of which one represented the layout of Bern Hill Farm in 1976 and the second was the transformed layout of the farm to Bern Hill Environmental centre in 2006 (the question was to report the relevant features and compare)
    task 2 was about Agree/disagree topic on “some people think that competitive sports should be banned for fear of the failure”
    I performed fairly in the speaking , reading and listening..but I couldn’t manage within the time limit because the topic was very interesting and my mind full of focal points.
    I was blessed with ur lessons and practice by which I could perform at least in this condition.I may need ur advanced lessons on writing, surely will b in touch

  25. Thank you Liz. I can see some of the mistakes I made in my first IELTS. This is very helpful.

  26. Harminder singh says:


    May i know in which tense we need to write our writing task 1- past or present..??

  27. Hi Liz,

    Thank you for your wonderful work on IELTS lessons. It is clear and so much easier to follow compare to other sites.
    Is it ok to write both introduction and overview in one paragraph ?


  28. kimloing says:

    The provided picture illustrates about the process of creating the cement and the steps of making concrete for building purpose.In general, the cement is made from the limestone which is the main substances of the process and also for the concrete production.

    Based on the diagram, it usually takes 5 steps to make cement. First of all, limestone is mixed with the clay. Both substances are flow by a tube into the crusher to brake it into small particles. Next, these petite particles are going to be homogeneous by using the mixer then it is passage by the same tube and go across the rotating heater which uses the temperature to burn the enormous of both ingredients. Finally, put those substances into grinder and packaging it.

    To product the concrete, people should take 15% of the cement to mix with 10% of water and also with the 25% of sand then put the 50% of small stones into the concrete mixer. Finally we can get the liquid for build the building.

  29. Hello Liz
    Please here is my task 1 writing, i hope you please go through it and see if i can score band 9.
    The diagram illustrate the methods taken for cement to be made, and process involved to produce a concrete.
    Overall, limestone and clay are the raw material that are used after going through a series of four process to form cement, the cement account 15% of required material used to form concrete. while concrete is made by combining four material in a specific percentage in a mixer.
    in the first diagram, limestone and clay are crushed to a powder form, and then convey then convey to a mixer where the two component are properly mixed, the mixture are forwarded to a rotating heater which heats the mixtures at a constant temperature at the end of the tube, the mixture proceed to the fourth stage of crushing the mixture where finally ,cement is manufactured. The end stage which is bagged the cement and ready for use.
    in the second stage, concrete is manufacturer by the combination of four building material which are mixed in a specific percentage. the materials are cement 15%, sand 25%, gravels 50%, and water 10%, all this material are poured in a concrete mixer. the component are properly mixed until a concrete is made.

  30. YASIN SHEHU says:

    Dear Liz
    The diagram illustrate the steps taken to produce a cement and how it is then used to made concrete. overall, limestone and clay are the raw material obtained which are sets to passes through a four consecutive stages before a cement is produced, while concrete is formed by the percentage of four material and cement is 15% contains.
    from the first diagram, limestone and clay are crushed together to formed a powder where is they are being combine in the mixer before heating at a constant temperature they are moved to a grinding stage and finally to the final stage which is package ready for use.
    considering the second diagram, concrete are form by mixing four component namely Cement, water, sand gravels which are small particles of stone.they are all poured in to a mixer which continously rotated.

  31. in academic writing task1 do we have to write overview as a new paragraph or write it into introduction paragraph?

  32. Hi Liz
    I’m fully aware of that there is no conclusion in task 1 but overview.
    But, interestingly, I came across some of the IELTS books’ sample answers where they gave conclusion, such as IELTS practice test plus 2 test 4.
    Would you please explain me at your convenient time possible?
    Thanks a lot for your wonderful assistance you are providing for free…

  33. Hi Liz,
    First of all I want to thank you for your all useful informations.

    My question is what does it mean ‘account for’?

    I really could’t understand the exact meaning of it, although I have looked up in the dictionaries and knew the meanning.


  34. Wouldn’t it be better to write 4 paragraphs (intruduction, overall information and 2 body paragraphs)?
    Sometimes I can see conclusion at the end of the sample task 1 which doesn’t give information but is quote kind of sentence. Is it needed?

  35. HI liz thanx for ur great support. I want to know that what should we use in LRW test pencil or pen?

  36. Hello Liz,

    First of all, i would like to big thank you for a very useful and wonderful your site☺

    I have two quiries .
    (1) you had used so many times the word like”spent” in writing task 1. So if we use a one word more than once in writing task 1,Would it chance to loose band?
    (2)In which situations, Will we use passive voice in both writing tasks?

    Best Regards,

  37. Dear liz for the diagram of cement and concrete production my introduction and overview is : the diagram below illustrates the steps and materials employed for cement production and how it is used for manufacturing concrere. Overall production of cement is a multi step process which begins with the mixing of lomestone and clay and endes with grinding of the resulting product while concrete is produced in a single step. What is the expected band score i can get for this

  38. Is it allowed to use caret /\ for inserting words or sentences ?

    • I wouldn’t insert a sentence because it might be difficult for the examiner to read. But inserting a word or two is fine. Just make sure everything is very clear and easy to read.

  39. Hi Liz!
    In writing, is it alright if I have many erasures? Using pencil, every time I will erase some words this will create a blank space between other words. Which makes my paragraph untidy. Will it reduce any points on this?

    Can I have tips to make my writing presentable?

    • If the examiner can read it, it’s fine. If you need to erase something, make sure it is fully erased and the new word is easily seen.

  40. Hi,
    I wish to clarify whether it is necessary to write the overall idea in the introduction paragraph. My coaching class taught me to write it at the end. Please do reply

  41. Thank you, you’re the best!

  42. cta sapkota says:

    Hello ma’am,
    First,I want to thank for your effort in helping us.
    I have test coming up at the end of this week.I am not sure about what to write with in writing task,pencil or pen!Which will you recommend? I apologise for asking irrelevant question here.

    Thank you

  43. Dear Liz,,
    First of all I would like to say a big thank you for your great job 🙂
    You said that we should write overview in writing task 1.but if we have a diagram,what kind of overview should I write in that case??.
    Thank you..

    • The overview contains the key features which are often main stages (but not always when you see the water supply diagram).
      All the best

  44. Dear Liz,

    First I’d like to thank you for sharing this amazing website with us. You have been doing a wonderful job!!!
    Second I’d like to ask you about the overall paragraph. Is it possible to write the overall at the end of task 1. I mean, in this example I’d write in the following order:
    1. Introduction
    2. Cement diagram
    3. Concrete diagram
    4. Overall

    Would it be ok?

    Thanks in advance.


  45. Abu Bakar says:

    Is “grinded” is incorrect past participle of “grind’?

  46. Abdinasir Mohamed says:

    Dear Liz
    Hope this message finds you well. I have to confess that you are truly helpful and talented.I have been using your blog for my academic IELTS self-study preparation, and I have scored my target with first attempt.
    I can’t express in words, how helpful you are, and your teaching skill is amazing.
    best regards

    • That’s great news! I’m really pleased when a student can hit their target and benefit from my blog. Well done!
      All the best

  47. Hi Liz,
    I want to take 7 bands in each module , i am facing difficulty in writing and reading. Is it possible you can check my writing. looking forward to hear from you

  48. Engr Muhammad Abdurrehman says:

    Respected visitors to this page. Kindly follow Madam Liz advice to ripped up your tasks with full confidence.
    Please for Extra-ordinary result always speak more and more after the lecture you attending on Youtube or any other site.
    And also do thorough study of all the IELTS recommended Book’s from 1-9 Series for Remarkable Victory.
    Best Wishes Engr Muhammad Abdurrehman

  49. Hi mam, can I use your model answer to write in my writing, I mean can I memorise the structure answer of each question types to do my report. Will the examiner realize that and will it affect my score ? Thank you 🙂

  50. ielts7que says:

    Hi would you mind giving a look to my answer.
    I know it is not correct but I find it difficult to write 150 words, since I can’t count point or commas.
    Here’s my answer:
    The figures depict the process of how to produce cement and concrete.
    The process begins with limestone and clay and culminates in concrete.

    To begin, limestone and clay are crushed and become powder.
    Subsequent to that, the powder produced is mixed before being rotated and heated at the same time.
    Once this stage is completed, the mixture is place onto a roll before passing through a grinder to make cement.
    Then, the producted cement is packed into bags.

    Afterwards, in order to produce concrete, a concrete mixer is utilized.
    The mix is placed into the mixer consists of 15% cement, 10% water, a quarter by sand and a half by gravel (small stones).
    Lastly, the concrete mixer make all the materials rotate,this way concrete is created.

    Overall, the entire process can be divided into two main phases: the first one results in the cement production,followed by the second one which ends with concrete.

    Do you think I can get at least a 6.5?

  51. Hi guys i have my ielts exam tomorrow .

    I had appeared twice bt could not get the required bands of 7 EACH.

    Hope i can make it happen this time.

    Fingers Crossed :))

  52. dear Liz,
    i really appreciate you valuable lessons. if it is permitted, i would like to ask about overview and introduction ,because what i have written is a bit different from yours.

    While the first diagram illustrates how to make cement, the second diagram shows how to produce concrete using cement for building purpose.

    Overall, the cement making process uses two ingredients (limestone and clay) and five different equipment (crusher, mixer, rotating heater, source of heat and grinder), while the concrete production uses four different ingredients (cement, water, sand and gravel) and only one equipment which is concrete mixer.
    And then body paragraph…

    1-is it appropriate to use ”the first diagram …..the second diagram….”?
    2-is it fine to use ” while” in introduction and in overview again or too much repetition? ( i need band score 7.5).
    3-here ingredient(s) is countable, and equipment is uncountable, is that right?
    4-is there too much detail in overview or still ok?
    much appreciated your help, thank you.

    • Question 1) Yes, it’s fine. Question 2) You should try to avoid repeating linkers, so use “whereas” for the second option. Question 3) “ingredients” is only for food, you need to use “materials” and equipment is uncountable. Question 4) avoid writing lists in the overall – you have tried to list all equipment instead of summarising the key stages.
      All the best

    • thank you so much!, you have been very helpful.

  53. Dear Liz,

    Can you explain for me how to you the word “the” correctly in this task? For example, the last sentence of the first paragraph, why the word “cement” is mentioned for the second time, it still stands alone?

    Thank you,

    • Because they are two different nouns. One noun is “concrete” and the other noun is “concrete mixer” which is a compound noun.
      All the best

  54. Dear Liz
    hello , i got a question
    dose flow charts come also in task 1 for the academic exam ?


  55. Writing task-1 is important in band calculation or not important? Mem, please give the knowledge about writing task band calculation with examples and also give the knowledge about weightage of each task(1,2)

  56. Mozhgan says:

    Hi dear Liz
    and than you a lot for your great sample answer!
    I have a question. at the end of your essay, you wrote — ultimately produce concert.
    did you mean produces? or I’m wrong?
    By the way you are wonderful 🙂
    with the best regards

  57. Haneen Alhroub says:

    Dear Liz,
    Can you check my writing please and give me any additional tips (:

    This diagram illustrates a series of steps and different instruments for cement production, which in turn used in concrete manufacturing for construction uses. Overall, five main upstream processes needed for cement manufacturing that including (crushing, blending, heating, milling and packaging), while only one downstream process achieved in concrete production.

    In term of cement production, limestone and clay were crushed together to form more fine particles. After that, the resulting powders were mixed well to ensure adequate particles distribution. The rotating heater melts the mixture which then mill through the grinder equipment to obtain a homogeneous cement particles. A packaging step takes a place as a last process.

    However, in concrete production an uni-step is achieved unlike the cement manufacturing, which is a multiple steps. But at the end, these two types of production still complement each other. In the concrete mixture, 15% cement, 25%sand, 50% gravel with a little of water were added and blended together by circular movement to form concrete as a final product ready to use.

  58. Hello, Liz. Here is my task 1 article for this diagram. Hope it would be a bother to check it and give advice since I really did bad in IELTS writing part (6.5) several months ago. Thanks a lot.

    The diagrams illustrate the process of producing cement with detailed procedures and relevant equipment as well as the production of concrete.

    Overall, limestone and clay are fundamental ingredients manufacturing cement by 5 essential steps, while concrete is made from 4 categories of raw materials, namely cement, sand, gravel and water.

    In the first diagram, the crusher make limestone and clay into powder to be prepared for the mixing procedure by a mixer. The powder that is well mixed is delivered in a continuous rotating heater, which is heated constantly. After that, high temperature powder is sent to grinding section where the production of cement is completed. Finally, settled quality of cement is packed in bags and ready for concrete production.

    In the second diagram, four different sorts of ingredients, which are 15% of cement, 25% of sand, 10% of water and 50% of gravel (small stones), are loaded in a concrete mixer that is spinning to blend all the materials and output concrete eventually.


  59. Emmanuel says:

    Hello Liz,can the introduction and the ooverview be merged in one paragraph?

    • Both statements can be put into one paragraph but they must still be separate sentences and easily distinguished from each other.
      All the best

  60. Lemuelle Bryan says:

    The diagrams illustrate the steps and tools used in the cement-making process and cement used to yield concrete for building purposes.

    The production of cement has 5 stages, it commence with the mixing of two raw materials and completing in the packaging a new cement.

    Concrete production has a simpler process by mixing the four elements (Cement, water, sand and gravel) in the concrete mixer.

    It starts with Limestone and clay is crushed together, resulting in powder is then mixed. Once Limestone and clay are collected as one, it passed through a rotating heater to heat. After being heated, travels over a conveyer belt to pound through a grinder. At this time, cement is produced and it is packed in a bag and delivered to the building site for concrete production.

    Concrete production begins, mixing the 4 elements, Cement (15%), Water (10%), Sand (25%) and Gravel (50%) into the concrete mixer until it is ready to use.

    • You will need to work on how to write an introduction (only one sentence for both diagrams) and then how to write an overview (all key features for both diagrams). Please see my models to learn more. Also be very careful with using capital letters – you have quite a lot of mistakes in this writing.
      All the best

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