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Prepositions Practice Sept 2018

Complete the sentences below using the following prepositions.

Prepositions:

  • A = down
  • B= for
  • C = on
  • D = with
  • E = over
  • F = in
  • G = no preposition required

Questions 1-6

Which of the above options can be used to complete these sentences.

  1. Smaller family units have become more common ………. recent decades.
  2. One of the main reasons ………. family units becoming smaller is finances.
  3. There has been a fall ……….. in the number of families with more than four members.
  4. Many children do not have a close relationship ………… their grandparents.
  5. Nowadays, less emphasis is placed ……….. close relationships between the generations.
  6. Children of working parents are often left alone ……. extended periods of time.

Answers

Click below to reveal the answers:

Answers
  1. F = in
    1. Smaller family units have become more common in recent decades.
  2. B = for
    1. One of the main reasons for family units becoming smaller is finances.
  3. G = no preposition needed
    1. There has been a fall in the number of families with more than four members.
  4. D = with
    1. Many children do not have a close relationship with their grandparents.
  5. C = on
    1. Nowadays, less emphasis is placed on close relationships between the generations.
  6. B = for
    1. Children of working parents are often left alone for extended periods of time.

 

All the best

Liz

Vocabulary for Plant Topic IELTS Speaking

Below is a list of vocabulary for the topic of plants in IELTS speaking part 1.

Pot Plants

  • Cactus (plural = cacti or cactuses)
  • Peace lily (see picture above)
  • Bamboo
  • Palm
  • Flowering plants
  • Orchids
  • Small plants for the window sill
  • Easy to maintain

Balcony plants

Trailing plants / climbers

Plants and flowers attractive to bees and butterflies

Hanging baskets (flowering plants)

  • Roses
  • Geraniums
  • begonia

Other vocab

  • Leaves
  • Stem
  • Bloom
  • Lush
  • Soil
  • Compost
  • Plant feed
  • Pruning
  • Re-potting
  • Drainage
  • Watering (daily/ regularly)
  • Automatic watering system
  • Full sunlight / shade / exposure to sun
  • North facing window
  • Variety of colours
  • Petals
  • Herbs grown in pots
    • mint, parsley, coriander, basil, oregano, rosemary, thyme
  • Vegetables grown in pots
    • tomatoes, peppers, peas, beans
  • to have green fingers

Sample Questions & Answers

You can see that some questions might produce shorter answers and other questions require more detail and explanation. This is normal in speaking part 1.

  1. Do you like plants?
    1. Yes, I do. I usually have at least one indoor pot plant in my sitting room such as a peace lily.
  2. Are you good at growing plants?
    1. No, I’m not. I definitely don’t have green fingers, unlike my grandfather who was really good with plants. I frequently have to buy new plants for my house when they die.
  3. Why do people grow plants?
    1. I think some people grow plants because it’s a pleasurable hobby that they can enjoy all year round. It is very rewarding to grow a plant, particularly when the flowers bloom. For other people, it is a way to make their living environment better. What I mean is plants can provide not only clean air but also greenery which is supposed to be uplifting for the spirit.

See extra questions for this topic: Speaking Part 1 Questions for Plant Topic

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How to Paraphrase Successfully in IELTS

Paraphrasing in IELTS is essential for a high score in IELTS. This page contains tips on paraphrasing to maximise your score. You need to learn to to identify paraphrases in IELTS listening and reading. For IELTS writing and speaking, you need to learn to paraphrase using your own words. Students who are good at paraphrasing will do better in all parts of their IELTS test.

This page will review 6 tips for paraphrasing in IELTS:

  1. using synonyms
  2. not changing all words
  3. avoiding mistakes
  4. changing word forms
  5. changing sentence stucture
  6. paraphrasing and band scores
  7. paraphrasing practice lessons

1. Using Synonyms

In IELTS one way to paraphrase is to use synonyms. Using different words with a similar meaning shows the examiner a range of vocabulary which you need to get over band score 6. Here is an example of how a sentence can be re-written by using synonyms:

The reasons for increasing levels of pollution are the development of industry and air travel.

The sentence above can be paraphrased as:

The causes of rising levels of pollution are the growth and expansion of industry as well as the number of people travelling by air.

Here is a list of how the sentence was altered using synonyms.

  • causes = reasons
  • increasing = rising
  • the development of = the growth and expansion of
  • and = as well as
  • air travel = travelling by air
  • Notice: you can see that the words “levels of pollution” and “industry” have not be changed. This is fine. Not all words need to be changed. In fact, the word “pollution” is best not changed. See tip number 2, below:

2. Not All Words Need Changing

Not all words need to be changed for a high score in IELTS. You can see from the example above that some words have remained the same “levels of pollution / industry / air). This means you need to decide which words to paraphrase and which words to keep the same.

Decide which words you can successfully paraphrase and which ones you will keep. Be selective. A high level student knows when to change words and when now to change words.

If you try to paraphrase too much, you might:

  1. make mistakes which will lower your score
  2. change the meaning which might result in you going off topic
  3. See tip number 3, below:

Here is a link to more practice paraphrasing for IELTS.

3. Avoiding Mistakes

The more mistakes you make with vocabulary in IELTS writing and speaking, the lower your score will be. Paraphrasing is a skill. Synonyms do not have exactly the same meaning and cannot always be used at the same time.

Watch this video below to get useful tips on paraphrasing for writing task 1 and writing task 2.

4. Changing the Word Form

Another way to paraphrase sentences is to change the form of the word. This means we use the same words as IELTS but change their form. Here is an example:

Many people are unhealthy because they fail to eat well and exercise.

This can be paraphrased by changing the word form of “unhealthy”, “fail” and “exercise”.

Many people have poor health because they are failing to eat well and are not exercising enough.

You can see from the above example, that many of the words are the same but the form is changed.

  1. unhealthy = poor health
  2. fail = failing
  3. exercise = exercising

This demonstrates excellent vocabulary skills to the examiner and will help you get a good score for vocabulary. It shows that you understand the words very well and can use them in different ways.

If you watch the video below about writing an introduction for IELTS writing task 2, you will see again how words can be paraphrased by changing their form and using synonyms.

Writing an Introduction for an IELTS Essay

Common Word Forms Examples

  • developing = the development of
  • increasing = an increase in
  • pollution = being polluted
  • explain = explanation

5. Changing Sentence Structure

Another way to paraphrase successfully is to change the order to words in a sentence. This means changing the structure of the sentence. Taking the example from above again:

Many people are unhealthy because they fail to eat well and exercise.

You can see there are two clauses “Many people are unhealthy” and the second clause “because they fail to eat well and exercise”.

We can change the order of the clauses:

Many people fail to eat well and exercise and, for that reason, they are unhealthy.

Lets make more changes to the sentence. Now we can also paraphrase by altering the word form as we did previously. The final sentence would be:

Failing to eat well and not exercising are the reasons that many people have poor health.

6. Paraphrasing & IELTS Band Scores

Of course paraphrasing will help your band score for the criterion of vocabulary.

Band Score 5

  •  Minimum Range of Vocabulary
  • Frequent Errors which cause problems with meaning

Band Score 6

  • Adequate Range of Vocabulary
  • Some Errors but the meaning is clear

Band Score 7

  • Sufficient Range of Vocabulary
  • Few Errors

Band Score 8

  • Wide Range of Vocabulary
  • Most sentences are Error Free

You can see that you need to show a range of words which means you need to paraphrase. But you also need to reduce your errors which means don’t try to paraphrase too much and don’t make mistakes.

Following the above tips (using synonyms, not paraphrasing all words, avoiding errors, changing the word form and changing the sentence structure) will help you achieve the highest score.

7. Paraphrasing Practice

It is essential that you practice paraphrasing and using synonyms. You can find some paraphrasing practice lessons on the links below.

  • My IELTS Reading Main Page which contains lessons for paraphrasing and using synonyms as well as lots of lessons for TFNG and other question types that appear in IELTS reading.
  • My IELTS Writing Task 2 Main Page which contains lots of tips for essay writing as well as paraphrasing practice.

 

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Vocabulary for Shoes Topic in IELTS Speaking Part 1

Learn useful vocabulary for shoes topic in IELTS Speaking Part 1 and improve your pronunciation. This topic is currently being used in the speaking test January 2017. This lesson provides vocabulary and audio to improve your pronunciation to talk about shoes.  Try to use these words in your answers in your test.

Listening and Vocabulary Practice

Can you label the missing shoes in the picture below? Pay attention to plural or singular nouns. Some answers will be plurals and some will be singular.

  1. Listen to the audio recording below and write down the missing words in the diagram below.
  2. Check your answers by clicking the arrow to reveal the answers below.

Note:

  1. Some answers are plurals and some answers are singular.
  2. Answers will be presented from left to right.

Shoe Type Vocabulary

Listen to the recording below. Write down the missing words you hear.

 

Answers

Click below to reveal the answers to the missing words:

Answers
  1. high-heeled shoe
  2. loafer
  3. slippers
  4. walking sandal
  5. flip-flops (also knows as thongs)
  6. trainers (also known as sneakers)
  7. wellington boots (also known as wellies)
  8. cowboy boot
  9. walking boots (also known as hiking boots)

 

More Vocabulary with Pronunciation

Learn more useful language for shoes. Listen to the recording below and practice your pronunciation.

Shoe Parts Vocabulary

Listen to the audio  for the above vocabulary:

 

More IELTS Vocabulary and Tips

Click below to visit useful pages for IELTS:

Questions and Model Answers for Shoes: Speaking Part 1

Vocabulary for Clothes

All speaking tips and model answers

All vocabulary lists

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Spelling Practice: Zoo Vocabulary

See the paragraphs below about zoos and spot the spelling mistakes.  The topic is zoos appeared in the IELTS writing task 2 test last week. In writing task 2, the examiner will check your spelling. Mistakes in spelling will lower score your for the criterion of vocabulary. Please note this is not an essay, it is just two paragraphs to practice your spelling.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Zoos

Read the paragraphs below and spot the spelling mistakes. Then decide how the words should be correctly spelled.

There are a number of reasons why it is wrong to put wild animals in zoos. Firstly, wild animals are not domisticated and should be free to roam around their naturol habitate. Putting them in confinned spaces in zoos means that they will never be able to return to the wild again. Secondly, animals have naturol instinkts which they develop from living in the wild and pass down to their own off spring. These instincts will gradualy fade and never return if they are kept in capivity.

On the other hand, keeping animals in zoos does serve some useful porposes. Zoos can serve a way to protect indangered species. Many species are faceing dwinling numbers due to distruction of their habitat or from disease so by keeping them in zoos, they are protected from extiction. Another reason why zoos can be useful is that they can serve as a way to educate the public. Most people will never come into contract with such a range of species in their lives. So, by having zoos, people are able to experiance seeing them and also learn about them. Hopefully this will help with the pretection of animals in the future as people will learn to appreciate animals.

Answers

There are 18 spelling mistakes in the paragraphs above. The correct spelling is highlighted below.

There are a number of reasons why it is wrong to put wild animals in zoos. Firstly, wild animals are not domesticated and should be free to roam around their natural habitat. Putting them in confined spaces in zoos means that they will never be able to return to the wild again. Secondly, animals have natural instincts which they develop from living in the wild and pass down to their own offspring. These instincts will gradually fade and never return if they are kept in captivity.

On the other hand, keeping animals in zoos does serve some useful purposes. Zoos can serve a way to protect endangered species. Many species are facing dwindling numbers due to destruction of their habitat or from disease so by keeping them in zoos, they are protected from extinction. Another reason why zoos can be useful is that they can serve as a way to educate the public. Most people will never come into contact with such a range of species in their lives. So, by having zoos, people are able to experience seeing them and also learn about them. Hopefully this will help with the protection of animals in the future as people will learn to appreciate animals.

 

This lesson was suggested by a student called Karamdeep. If you have any ideas for lessons, please let me know by posting your ideas in the comments box below.

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Body Language Vocabulary

Here is a list of body language communication and a free video watch with extra vocabulary. There are many examples of how body language is a form of communication. Body language is used in every country and culture throughout the world.

Why is body language important to understand?

  •  Body language is used to assess people’s characters. It is one of the first ways we assess a stranger’s character.
  • Body language is used to communicate directly with someone when language is not possible.
  • Body language is commonly used and assessed at work and interviews.
  • Body language is an essential part of friendships and relationships.
  • Body language can lead to great misunderstanding between different cultures.

The video tutorial below gives some of the most common examples of body language. More examples are listed under the video.

Body Language Vocabulary: Video Tutorial

A great video to learn some vocabulary for body language communication. A fun video to show that learning vocabulary can be fun!!!

 

List of Body Language

Below is a list of body language that is common in the west with the common meaning.

Facial Expressions

  • Avoiding eye contact = shy, worried, lying
  • Crinkling nose = disgust
  • Deadpan face (without any expression) = emotionless or hiding feelings
  • Direct eye contact = confidence
  • Eyes staring into the distance = dreamy, not concentrating
  • Pressing lips together (tight lipped) = annoyed, angry
  • Raised eye brows = doubtful, disbelieving
  • Smiling = friendly

Physical Actions

  • Arms behind back, shoulders back = confidence
  • Arms crossed = defensive or insecure but sometimes it means being angry
  • Bowing (bending at the waist) = greeting someone new (in some countries)
  • Biting nails = nervous
  • Blushing (going red in the cheeks) or stammering (speaking with hesitations and repeated letters) = embarrassment
  • Eye rubbing = tired or disbelieving
  • Hands covering gaping mouth = scared
  • Putting arms up with palms facing forward = submission
  • Scratching one’s head = confused
  • Shaking the head = negative, no
  • Shrugging shoulders (moving shoulders up and down) = don’t know, doubt, confused
  • Stroking one’s chin = thinking deeply
  • Nodding head =  agreement, yes
  • Firm handshake = strong and decisive / limp handshake = weak

International Problems with Body Language

Nodding head = In some countries, it means “yes” but in other countries it means “no”. Likewise, a shaking head means “no” in some countries but “yes” in others.

Silence = In the West, this can be negative and be a problem between people. However, in other countries, such as China or Japan, it can be a sign of agreement or femininity.

Personal space = In countries, such as England, people should stand a respectful distance from each other but in other countries, such as Spain, people touch each other when talking. In Japan, the person space is often bigger between people than in England. Respectful space between people changes depending on countries.

Eye Contact = In the West, this is a sign of confidence and is important when listening actively to someone. On the other hand, there are countries where this might be a sign of aggression and confrontation.

Practice Using Body Language Vocabulary

Fill the gaps of these sentences with the suitable words:

1. I had no idea what she was talking about. Then suddenly she asked a question that I couldn’t understand so I just ………….. my shoulders and walked away.

2. My boss always tells tall stories. Yesterday he came to work with another unbelievable story but the only response I could give was to ……….. my eyebrows.

3. If there’s one thing I hate, it’s being late. Once I was in a really long meeting at work and by the time we finished I was late to meet my friend. During the meeting, I could feel myself getting impatient and my foot started ……………. on the floor.

4. I can’t stand watching films at the cinema because you can’t relax like you can in private, particularly when watching an action movie full of surprises and shocks. When there is a really sudden unexpected scene, my eyes ………. and my mouth ……… open which I find really embarrassing in public.

5. I remember once I was late for an appointment. When I arrived, which was over 1 hour late, I ………….  deep red and stammered an apology.

Answers
  1. shrugged (the answer isn’t “shrugged off” because that means to get rid of – usually a feeling – and does relate to shoulders)
  2. raise
  3. tapping (the answer isn’t stamping because stamping is when you are very angry not impatient)
  4. widen    gapes  (don’t forget the “s”)
  5. blushed

 

Using vocabulary in IELTS

Q) In what way is body language a form of communication?

A) Well, people use body language to send a message or to indicate something so it is definitely a way to communicate. For example, when people raise their eyebrows, it often means they are incredulous or disbelieving and when they tap their foot on the floor, you know they are impatient. So, using facial expressions and physical actions can communicate things to other people.

Q) Do you think it is possible to misunderstand someone’s body language?

A) Yes, definitely. When someone avoids your eye, it is possible to think that they are avoiding your question and don’t want to talk to you. But really, it might be that they are just shy. So, it’s quite easy to grasp the wrong meaning in people’s actions.

Q) Describe a time you were late for an appointment.

A) I remember, about one month ago, organising to meet someone in the town center at 9pm. Unfortunately, I was delayed because of traffic and didn’t arrive until about 9.30pm. My friend was really mad. She had her arms crossed and was tapping her foot impatiently on the ground. I was so embarrassed and blushed a lot. I stammered my apology but felt really uncomfortable because she was staring at me with angry eyes. Anyway, we sorted out our differences and have been really good friends ever since. (this is an example of part of a talk for speaking part 2 – add details and descriptions)

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Crime and Punishment Vocabulary with Pronunciation

The most common crime and punishment vocabulary with audios for pronunciation. This word list covers crimes, criminals, punishment, court proceedings and other useful words to write and talk about the topic of crime. Practice the words with the vocabulary exercise at the bottom of the page.

Types of Crime: Major & Minor Crime Vocabulary

These crimes are divided into crimes which are considered serious and those that are not.

Major Crimes

The list of crimes below are all nouns.

  • abduction = taking someone against their will (kidnapping)
  • arson = setting fire to a property
  • assault = a physical attack
  • burglary = illegal entry to a building with an intent to commit a crime
  • child abuse = maltreatment of a child
  • drug trafficking = importing illegal drugs
  • false imprisonment = imprisoning a person against their will
  • fraud = deception for personal or financial gain
  • hacking = unauthorised access to data in a computer system
  • hijacking = illegally getting control of an aircraft or vehicle
  • human trafficking = illegally transporting people, usually for slave labour or commercial sexual exploitation
  • murder (homicide USA)
    • premeditated murder = murder that is intentional (planned before hand)
    • unpremeditated murder – murder that is not intentional (not planned)
    • manslaughter – unintentional murder (synonym for unpremeditated murder)
    • attempted murder = planning to kill another person
    • patricide = killing one’s own father
    • genocide = systematic killing of a race or religious group
    • euthanasia = killing someone for their benefit
  • organised crime = crime by an organised gang or organisation
  • smuggling = illegal import or export
  • terrorism = unlawful violence or threat with political aims
  • white collar crime = financially motivated non-violent crime by a worker

Minor Crimes / Offences

  • pick pocketing = taking from another person’s pockets
  • shoplifting = taking products from a shop without paying for them
  • traffic offences =breaking the rules of the road and driving
    • drunk driving = driving whilst under the influence of alcohol
    • jay walking = crossing the road at an undesignated spot
    • running a red light = going through traffic lights when they are red
    • speeding = driving over the speed limit
  • vandalism = deliberate destruction or damage to a building

Vocabulary for Criminals

This list shows the person relating to the crime (the perpetrator of the crime).

  • crime = criminal
  • murder = murderer
  • theft = thief
  • trafficking = trafficker
  • hijacking = hijacker
  • terrorism = terrorist
  • smuggling = smuggler
  • shoplifting = shoplifter
  • vandalism = vandal
  • teenage criminal/ juvenile delinquent

Types of Punishment Vocabulary

  • the death penalty (capital punishment) = punishment of death
  • a prison sentence (imprisonment) = imprisonment
    • life in prison
    • 10 years
    • 6 months
  • a suspended sentence = delaying of a sentence
  • forfeiture = property is taken away (confiscated)
  • hospital order = to confine someone to hospital under arrest
  • a fine = to pay money as a punishment for an offence
  • house arrest = imprisoned in one’s own house rather than in prison
  • to suspend a license = with holding a person’s right to use their driving license for a period of time
  • to revoke a license = to take away someone’s driving license
  • non-custodial sentence = a sentence which is not done in prison
    • community service = punishment by doing community work

Other Types of Punishment

This refers to punishment commonly used by schools and parents.

  • detention = to stay in school after hours for punishment
  • to give lines = punishment where a child must write the same sentence again and again
  • isolation = to be kept apart from others as a punishment
  • grounding = to be unable to go outside home as a punishment
  • scolding = an angry reprimand
  • corporal punishment = physical punishment from a teacher or headteacher at school

Court Language

  • judge = the person who controls the court proceedings
  • jury = a group of independent people who decide whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty
  • justice = fairness or court law
  • trial = legal proceedings to judge whether someone is guilty of a crime
  • court = the place where the trial is held
  • defendant = the accused person: the individual or group being accused in court of a crime
  • prosecutor = the lawyer against the accused person
  • defense = the lawyer protecting the accused person
  • witness = a person who sees an event happen
  • evidence = facts or information supporting the truth
  • proof = evidence supporting a claim
  • hearsay = rumour / unsubstantiated information
  • guilty = not innocent as judged by a court of law
  • innocent = found not guilty of a crime
  • to be found guilty = the court decided that the person did commit the crime
  • conviction / verdict = formal sentence of a court
  • circumstances of the crime = a condition or situation relating to a crime
  • extenuating circumstances = a condition that makes the crime or mistake less serious and more understandable
  • take into consideration = should be thought about carefully
  • circumstantial evidence = something that connects a person indirectly to the crime (for example, a finger print at a crime scene but no actual hard evidence or witness)
  • maximum / minimum sentence = highest penalty / lowest penalty
  • a harsh punishment = hard, strict penalty
  • penalty / punishment are synonyms but penalty is often used for both minor offences and major crimes.

Other Useful Crime & Punishment Vocabulary

  • crime is prevalent = there is a lot of crime
  • armed police = police who carry guns
  • to deter (n = deterrent) = to put someone off from doing something
  • discrimination = unjust treatment
  • to be soft on crime = not to have harsh or strict punishments
  • repeat offender = a person who has committed a crime or offence more than once
  • serial criminals = criminals who repeatedly commit the same crime
  • diminished responsibility = when someone is not in a state to be considered responsible for their own actions
  • rehabilitation = to restore someone through education or therapy
  • reintegrate back into society = help someone return into society
  • peer pressure = pressure from friends or colleagues
  • role models = people whose behaviour should be copied and respected
  • mimicking violent behaviour = to copy aggressive actions

Practice Exercises with Crime Vocabulary

Complete the sentences using one or more words either from the above lists or from other vocabulary relating to this topic. The sentence must be grammatically correct once you have added the right word(s).

  1. The ………………. is the strongest deterrent against crime.
  2. The number of ……………….. is on the rise due to the impact of peer pressure at school and violent movies shown on TV. Teenagers are prone to ……………. aggressive behaviour.
  3. All people accused of a crime should be given a fair ……………. in a ………… of law.
  4. People who are convicted a murder from only ………………………. evidence should not receive the death penalty.
  5. The motives of a crime should always be taken into consideration. For example. there is a significant difference in the character of a person who commits ……………… murder and one who commits accidental murder.
  6. A ………….. sentence is more humane than capital punishment.
  7. Punishment should be the last resort. Instead criminals should be  …………………….
  8. People who commit ……….. crimes, such as traffic offences, should have their ……………….. revoked.
  9. Famous people, such as movie stars, should set a good ………… and ensure that they are good …………….. for young people to follow.
  10. …………… and the right to a fair ……………. should be the right of all citizens.
  11. Parents who inflict ……………… punishment on their children are showing children that …………….. is an acceptable way to deal with problems.
  12. Prison does not rehabilitate criminals, it only …………. them from society.   …………….. service and rehabilitation is a better way to avoid criminals becoming ………………….
Answers
  1. death penalty (the answer can’t be “capital punishment” because it doesn’t use the article “the”)
  2. juvenile delinquents / mimic
  3. trial / court
  4. circumstantial
  5. premeditated
  6. life
  7. rehabilitated
  8. minor / licenses
  9. example / role models
  10. Justice / trial
  11. corporal / violence
  12. removes / Community / repeat offenders

 

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Common Uncountable Nouns: Word List

A list containing the most common uncountable nouns with tips and advice. Countable and uncountable nouns are some of the most common mistakes that students make in English. This page will explain everything to you.

Download PDF: Uncountable Nouns List

What is an uncountable noun?

Countable nouns are nouns which can be counted in numbers. For example, one house / two houses. When we use countable nouns, we use the article “a” and the plural “s” (a house, two houses).

Uncountable nouns are nouns which can’t be counted. For example, information. It is not possible to say one information/ two informations. The word “information” can’t be counted using numbers. It can never have a plural “s”. It can never have an article “a” or “an”. And it can never be quantified with any number.

What types of uncountable nouns are there?

Most uncountable nouns relate to:

  • liquids (milk, water)
  • abstract ideas (advice, chaos, motivation)
  • powder and grain (rice, wheat, sand)
  • mass nouns (furniture, hair, transportation)
  • natural phenomena (sunshine, snow, rain, weather)
  • states of being (sleep, stress, childhood)
  • feelings (anger, happiness, enthusiasm, courage)
  • gas (oxygen, air)

Uncountable Nouns & Grammar

  • How much …? = uncountable nouns / How many …? = countable nouns /
  • These = countable / This = uncountable
  • many = countable / a lot of = uncountable (and countable)
  • not many = countable / not much uncountable (we use “much” with negative uncountable nouns)

To express an amount of an uncountable noun, you must use other words.

  • some information = a piece of information
  • some clothing = one item of clothing / two items of clothing
  • some equipment = a piece of equipment / two pieces of equipment
  • some water = a cup of water / two glasses of water

Uncountable Noun List

I have put the most common words in bold. Some words are both countable and uncoutable – I have put a note next to those words.

A-F Uncountable Nouns

  • accommodation
  • advertising
  • air
  • aid
  • advice
  • anger
  • art
  • assistance
  • bread
  • business
  • butter
  • calm
  • cash
  • chaos
  • cheese (both)
  • childhood (both)
  • clothing 
  • coffee (both)
  • content
  • corruption
  • courage
  • currency (both)
  • damage
  • danger (both)
  • darkness
  • data
  • determination
  • economics
  • education (both)
  • electricity
  • employment
  • energy
  • entertainment (both)
  • enthusiasm
  • equipment
  • evidence
  • failure (both)
  • fame
  • fire
  • flour
  • food (both)
  • freedom
  • friendship (both)
  • fuel
  • furniture
  • fun

G -M Uncountable Nouns

  • genetics
  • gold
  • grammar
  • guilt
  • hair
  • happiness
  • harm
  • health
  • heat
  • help
  • homework
  • honesty
  • hospitality 
  • housework
  • humour
  • imagination (both)
  • importance
  • information
  • innocence
  • intelligence
  • jealousy
  • juice
  • justice
  • kindness
  • knowledge
  • labour
  • lack (both)
  • laughter
  • leisure
  • literature
  • litter
  • logic
  • love (both)
  • luck
  • magic
  • management
  • metal (both)
  • milk
  • money
  • motherhood
  • motivation
  • music

N-S Uncountable Nouns

  • nature
  • news
  • nutrition
  • obesity
  • oil
  • old age
  • oxygen
  • paper (both)
  • patience
  • permission
  • pollution
  • poverty
  • power (both)
  • pride
  • production (both)
  • progress
  • pronunciation
  • publicity
  • punctuation
  • quality (both)
  • quantity (both)
  • racism
  • rain
  • relaxation (both)
  • research
  • respect
  • rice
  • room (space)
  • rubbish
  • safety
  • salt
  • sand
  • seafood
  • shopping
  • silence (both)
  • smoke
  • snow
  • software
  • soup (both)
  • speed
  • spelling
  • stress 
  • sugar
  • sunshine

T – Z Uncountable Nouns

  • tea (both)
  • tennis
  • time (both)
  • tolerance (both)
  • trade (both)
  • traffic
  • transportation
  • travel
  • trust
  • understanding (both)
  • unemployment
  • usage
  • violence
  • vision (both)
  • warmth
  • water
  • wealth
  • weather
  • weight (both)
  • welfare
  • wheat
  • width
  • wildlife
  • wisdom
  • wood (both)
  • work
  • yoga
  • youth (both)

Irregular Uncountable Nouns

Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable.

Room  = has two meanings. One is countable and one is uncountable.

  • If this is about a room in a house, it is countable.
  • If this is relating to space “there isn’t much room in this place”, it is uncountable.

Hair = this can be countable and uncountable depending on how you use it.

  • “There is a hair in my soup”. This refers to only one strand of hair and is countable.
  • “He has a lot of hair”. This refers to the mass of hair and is considered uncountable.

Business = this can be countable and uncountable.

  • “He is going to Paris on business”. This is uncountable.
  • “I will take my business elsewhere”. This is uncountable and means I will take my custom to another shop.
  • “He studies business at school”. This is uncountable.
  • “I am planning to start a new business”.  Countable.

This is a difficult one with a lot of exceptions. Here’s a link with a list of rules for the word business / countable and uncountable.

Other Irregular Uncountable Nouns

light / paper / time / work /

For details of irregular uncountable nouns, follow the link.

Practice with Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Fill in the gaps using one of the following: many / much / a lot of.

  1. …………. wildlife are losing their habitation due to deforestation.
  2. I haven’t heard ………. news about the recent events in Europe.
  3. There aren’t ………. sports lessons offered in the school curriculum.
  4. I can’t go out to tonight because I’ve got ………… work.
  5. It is often thought that people who have only traveled in their own country don’t have ……………. tolerance for others compared to people who have been abroad.
  6. ………… literature that students read at school is classical.
  7. ……….. education policies are designed to protect students but ensure a high level of learning.
Answers
  1. A lot of
  2. much
  3. many (“lessons” = countable)
  4. a lot of
  5. much
  6. A lot of
  7. Many (“policies” = countable)

 

Fill in the gaps with on of the following: is / are.

  1. Silence ……… essential in libraries to ensure that people can concentrate on what they are reading.
  2. There ……. a lot of company advertising during major sports events.
  3. Shopping …….. one of the most popular leisure activities for women.
  4. There …….. a lot of information available online about IELTS.
  5. There ………. a lot of traffic in city centers during rush hour.
  6. There ……….. not enough money spent on research for cancer.
  7. Water …….. essential for plants to thrive.
  8. I think that childhood …….. one of the best times of a person’s life.
  9. The management procedures ……… difficult to understand.
  10. Not enough aid …. given to third world countries.
Answers
  1. is
  2. is
  3. is
  4. is
  5. is
  6. is
  7. is
  8. is
  9. are
  10. is

 

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